Have you ever experienced this? You pull up to a red traffic signal and within seconds it turns green! How did the creature notice your presence? Or perhaps you’ve experienced the reverse experience: You are stuck at a red light for what feels like an interminable amount of time.
Some lights lack any type of detectors. In a large metropolis, for instance, the traffic lights may simply function on timers; regardless of the time of day, there will be a great deal of traffic. On suburban and rural roadways, though, detectors are prevalent. They may detect when a vehicle arrives at a junction, when too many vehicles are backed up at an intersection (to manage the duration of the light), or when vehicles enter a turn lane (in order to activate the arrow light).
Typically, traffic lights detect vehicles using digital sensors installed on the lights themselves or an inductive loop implanted in the road surface. Both technologies permit the traffic system to monitor halted vehicles at an intersection and facilitate traffic flow. Nevertheless, they accomplish this in vastly distinct ways.
What Are Inductive Loop Systems?
To build an inductive loop, workers lay asphalt and then return with a saw to cut a groove in it. The wire is inserted into the groove and then sealed with a rubber-like substance. Because the compound is conspicuous, these large rectangular cuts in the pavement are frequently visible.
Inductive loops function by detecting an inductance change. To comprehend the procedure, let’s first define inductance. This page’s illustration is useful.
This image depicts a battery, a light bulb, a coil of wire wrapped around a piece of yellow iron, and a switch. The wire coil is an inductor. Electromagnetic in nature, the inductor is an electromagnet.
If you were to remove the inductor from this circuit, you would have a standard flashlight. Close the switch to illuminate the bulb. With the illustrated inductor in the circuit, the behavior is drastically altered. The light bulb functions as a resistor (the resistance creates heat to make the filament in the bulb glow). The wire in the coil has a considerably lower resistance (it’s just wire), therefore you would anticipate the bulb to glow very softly when the switch is turned on. The majority of the current should use the path with the lowest resistance through the loop. Instead, when you close the switch, the light bulb glows brilliantly before becoming dimmer. When the switch is turned on, the light bulb burns very brightly before immediately going out.
This peculiar behavior is due to the inductor. As soon as current begins to flow through the coil, the coil attempts to generate a magnetic field. As the field is forming, the coil prevents current flow. Once the field is established, normal current flow can resume through the wire. When the switch is opened, the magnetic field surrounding the coil maintains current flow until the field collapses. This current keeps the light on for a length of time despite the switch being off.
Similarly, a traffic light sensor utilizes the loop. It continuously measures the inductance of the road’s loop, and when the inductance rises, it determines that a car is approaching.
As a result of its simplicity, inductive loop systems are widely utilized. Compared to expensive and sophisticated digital sensors, there is a significantly lower possibility of failure with analog sensors, but this simplicity can also be a disadvantage. The only thing the induction coil “knows” is whether or not a vehicle is parked on top of it. This is the primary reason why the light may not change quickly if a car does not come to a complete stop.
Lighter vehicles, such as motorbikes, may also fail to activate the inductor based on their weight alone, creating an inconvenience for motorcyclists during low-traffic hours. Digital sensor technologies eliminate these issues and enable transportation authorities to record countless hours of traffic data that can be used for future route and metropolitan project planning.
Other Types of Traffic Light Sensors
In addition to induction methods, traffic lights may use a number of modern sensors to detect vehicles. They are often positioned near the lights and do not require metal to be laid within the road. You may find infrared sensors, microwave beam emitters, and video cameras as sensing technologies.
There are “active” and “passive” infrared sensors. An active system emits an infrared light beam that pauses precisely where an automobile may be at a red light. When a vehicle pulls up, the sensor is able to identify that the spot is occupied because the beam is disrupted. (Emergency vehicles such as ambulances and police cars are equipped with active sensors that can request a traffic light change when their lights or sirens are activated.)
Passive sensors utilize infrared sensing to detect the heat emitted by an automobile’s engine. Yet, other sources of strong heat, such as direct sunshine, can cause the device to report false positives.
A microwave sensor functions similarly to an active infrared sensor, but generates a magnetic field instead. As vehicles enter a field, the field is disturbed and the waves are altered. The sensor can then detect these changes and identify the vehicle. Microwave emitters are relatively costly and do not have the same heat contamination difficulties as infrared emitters.
Traffic light systems with video cameras are the most sophisticated, but also have the potential to be the most successful. Several cameras, resembling those found in a CCTV system, are installed on the streetlights. Several, possibly dozens of traffic stops can be networked using these cameras.
They all communicate with a computer running software designed to recognize and count automobiles at a halt in real time. It may also be able to differentiate between cars and pedestrians. The network collects all of this information and then seeks to operate the string of lights with maximum efficiency. Then, long-term analytics can be used to further enhance the system or determine which routes require modification. Unfortunately, weather conditions such as fog can significantly impair cameras’ visibility.
In order to keep traffic moving, traffic lights are frequently equipped with two types of sensors, or a sensor and an inductive loop. If one form of detection becomes infeasible due to external factors or a hardware breakdown, the system is able to revert to another and prevent a big traffic nightmare.